児童ポルノ・児童買春・児童福祉法・監護者性交・強制わいせつ・青少年条例・不正アクセス禁止法・わいせつ電磁的記録記録被告事件弁護人 奥村徹弁護士の見解(弁護士直通050-5861-8888 hp@okumura-tanaka-law.com)

性犯罪・福祉犯(監護者性交罪・強制わいせつ罪・児童ポルノ・児童買春・青少年条例・児童福祉法)の被疑者(犯人側)の弁護を担当しています。専門家向けの情報を発信しています。

「児童の売買,児童買春及び児童ポルノに関する児童の権利に関する条約の選択議定書の実施に関するガイドライン」案に対するコメント(仮訳)から、日本政府の見解を垣間見る

 非実在とか自画撮りについて、委員会とは違う点があるようです。
 ガイドラインの仮訳がないのかを聞いています。



【参考2】児童の売買等に関する児童の権利条約選択議定書の実施に関するガイドライン案(英文)(PDF)     (2019年2月 「児童の売買,児童買春及び児童ポルノに関する児童の権利に関する条約の選択議定書の実施に関するガイドライン」案に対するコメント(仮訳)
DRAFT Guidelines on the implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography  
  個別のパラグラフに対する意見
The Committee underscores the pressing need to fight impunity for the offences covered by the OPSC.
The legislative measures for the implementation of the OPSC should cover, explicitly, all acts mentioned in article 3, including attempts to commit these acts.
Attention should be given to the prohibition of the sale of children for the purpose not only of sexual exploitation, but also for the purpose of transfer of organs, engagement in forced labour, and situations where adoption constitutes sale of children.
Furthermore, legislative measures should include the liability of both natural and legal persons, and should establish extraterritorial jurisdiction over all offences covered by the OPSC (article 4), as well as provide precise conditions and rules for extradition (article 5) and for the seizure and confiscation of goods (article 7).
(パラ16)第2文及び第4文について,本パラグラフの未遂罪及び法人責任に関する記載について,それぞれ選択議定書第3条2及び4に従って,「subject to the provisions of a State party’s national law」を追記することを提案する。
    18. The Committee urges States parties to ensure that national legislation does not, in any way, criminalise child victims of sale, sexual exploitation and sexual abuse, including children who have been sold and/or trafficked across borders. (パラ18)被害児童を被害に係る行為と関係のない罪で検挙する場合もあり得ることから,第1文から「in any way」を削除することを提案する。
    21. The Committee urges States parties to develop and implement a comprehensive and systematic mechanism for data collection, analysis, monitoring and impact assessment, as well as for its dissemination, which includes all issues covered by the OPSC.
Importantly, data collection should be coordinated between all relevant stakeholders, including a national statistical bureau, and data should be centralised to avoid incoherent or contradictory data between different State agencies.
 The Committee recommends, in particular, that States parties:
        (a) Implement a disaggregated approach to data, addressing how these offences affect different groups of children. As a minimum, data should be disaggregated by sex, age, and form of exploitation. Where possible, the Committee encourages States parties to disaggregate data also by national and ethnic origin, geographic location, socioeconomic status, and disability;
        (b) Collect data on how children access and use digital and social media and their impact on children’s lives and safety, and on factors that affect children’s resilience as they access and use ICTs;
        (c) Collect data on the number of cases reported (including to to the police and any other existing reporting mechansims), prosecutions, convictions and sanctions, as well as redress provided to victims, disaggregated by the nature of the offence, including with regard to online and offline activity, category of perpetrator, and abovementioned characteristics of victims;
        (d) Develop common indicators and a standardised data collection system in case data are collected at regional or local levels (e.g. municipalities) in the country;
        (e) All data should be collected with due respect for children’s right to privacy.
(パラ21)児童が被害者となった刑事事件の過程で得られた情報は,児童のプライバシーに関し秘匿性の高い情報を含むところ,第3文に「to the extent appropriate and possible」を追記することを提案する。
    41. Public education programmes to increase awareness, knowledge and reporting of cases of sale, sexual exploitation and sexual abuse of children should include an online-specific dimension, and specialised training for police, lawyers, prosecution and judiciary professionals must include specific parts on online issues, but also on online tools to facilitate victim identification techniques and rescue operations. (パラ41)警察,弁護士,検察官又は司法担当者に対する研修は,各職種において, 研修内容が異なることから,「in an appropriate and possible manner」を文末に追記することを提案する。
    43. Considering that child sexual abuse material, such as images and videos, can circulate indefinitely online, the Committee alerts States parties to the fact that the continuous circulation of such material, in addition to perpetuating the harm done to child victims, contributes to the promotion of a subculture in which children are perceived as sexual objects, and risks strengthening the belief among persons with a sexual interest in children that it is “normal” since many others share the same interest. The Committee therefore urges States parties to ensure that internet service providers control, block and, ultimately, remove such content as soon as possible as part of their prevention policies. (パラ43)インターネット上の児童ポルノは児童の権利を著しく侵害するものであることからブロッキングを行うこととしているが,その実施に際しては,インターネット利用に関する通信の秘密や表現の自由につき十分に配慮することが必要である。したがって,パラグラフ43の最終文に次のように追記することを提案する。

 The Committee therefore urges States parties to ensure that internet service providers control, block and, ultimately, remove such content as soon as possible as part of their prevention policies, with due consideration for secrecy of communications and freedom of expression.
    46. The Committee reminds States parties that, in accordance with article 3.2 OPSC, the obligation to criminalise the acts below shall apply also to attempts to commit any such acts, as well as to complicity or participation in any such acts. (パラ46)選択議定書第3条2に従って,「subject to the provisions of a State party’s national law」を文末に追記することを提案する。
    47. Sale of children is defined by the OPSC as the transfer of a child by any person (e.g. a parent) or a group of persons (e.g. a family) to another person in exchange for remuneration or any other consideration. It may entail the movement of a child to another place but not necessarily so. The “remuneration or any other consideration” is the core element of the sale of a child, and the payment of money (remuneration) is usually part of the exchange. While it is not specified who should receive the remuneration, it will most likely be the person or group who transfers the child to another person. It is also possible that money is used to pay a debt of the parents. However, there may be other reasons (consideration) for the sale of a child, e.g. the promise by the other person that the child will receive education or vocational training, or other kinds of offers for a better future.
    48. The sale of children as defined in article 2 should be criminalised (article 3, para. 1(a)(i)) if a child is offered, delivered or accepted:
        a. For the purpose of sexual exploitation. While the term “sexual exploitation” is not defined here, the Committee is of the view that this legal provision should cover all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse, including when these are facilitated through ICTs.
        b. For the purpose of transfer of organs of a child for profit. It is important to specify that the purpose of such transfer must be “for profit”. The legal transfer of an organ of a child may entail costs which are not for profit.
        c. For the purpose of engaging a child in forced labour.18.
        d. The Committee emphasises that the fact of “offering, delivering or accepting” a child includes situations where the child is offered or accepted through the use of ICTs.
(パラ47)最終文について,誤解を生まないために,「other than the adoption of a child that is authorized by competent authorities」を追記することを提案する。
    54. The definition of child prostitution in the OPSC must not be understood as suggesting that the child could consent to “sexual activities in exchange for remuneration or any other form of consideration”, and that the child is necessarily the recipient of money or other “consideration”. The reality is that a child cannot, in any legally relevant way, consent to her/his own sexual exploitation. Moreover, such remuneration or consideration can be paid or given to any third person, and the child often does not receive anything, or the “consideration” is limited to basic survival needs such as food or shelter. The Committee underscores that all children who are sexually exploited in prostitution shall be considered victims, and must never be considered liable for their exploitation. (パラ54,80及び83)法的拘束力のないガイドラインの性質に鑑み,“shall”を  “should”に置き換えることを提案する。これらの文脈において,“shall”を使用することは,児童の権利条約又は選択議定書の条文とも一致しない。
    80. For any evidence collected during investigations on offences covered by the OPSC, clear rules and procedures must be established on how such evidence can be collected, how and where it shall be stored, who can have access and for how long it will remain stored. The Committee also recommends States parties to set forth clear rules regarding the destruction of evidence, in particular child sexual abuse material, the circulation of which can continue to revictimise the victims a long time after the initial offence was committed.  
    83. Regarding liability and sanctions for legal persons, States parties shall ensure that legal persons can be held liable, under criminal, civil or administrative law, for the commission, complicity and participation in the offences covered by the OPSC. Particular attention shall be paid to the legal responsibility of ICT companies to block and remove child sexual abuse material hosted on their servers, for financial institutions to block and refuse financial transactions aimed to pay for any such offences,  
    61. Child pornography is defined in article 2 OPSC as “any representation of a child engaged in real or simulated explicit sexual activities, regardless of the means used, or any representation of the sexual parts of a child for primarily sexual purposes”. The qualification “by whatever means” reflects the broad range of material available in a variety of media, online and offline. It includes, inter alia: visual material such as photographs, movies, drawings and cartoons; audio representations; any digital media representation; live performances; written materials in print or online; and physical objects such as sculptures, toys, or ornaments.26 (パラ61)表現の自由に対する制約は最小限でなければならず,児童ポルノの範囲については極めて慎重に検討しなければならない。この点,「pornography」は,従来から視覚により認識可能な物を指すところ,音声媒体や文章まで含むかどうかは,今後慎重に検討されるべきである。ついては,第3文から「audio representations」と「written materials in print or online」を削除することを提案する。
  (パラ61)また,同様の理由から,被害者となる児童が実在しない場合にまで刑罰を科すべきかどうかは今後慎重に検討されなければならない。ついては,第3文に「as far as it represents an existing child」を追記することを提案する。
    62. The Committee urges States parties to prohibit, by law, child sexual abuse material in any form. The Committee notes that such material is increasingly circulating online, and strongly recommends States parties to ensure that relevant provisions of their Criminal Codes cover all forms of material, including when the acts listed in article 3.1(c) are committed online and including when such material represents realistic representations of non-existing children. (パラ62)同様の理由から,第2文「and including when such material represents realistic representations of non-existing children」を削除することを提案する。
    63. The Committee is of the view that “simulated explicit sexual activities” should be interpreted as including any material, online or offline, that depicts or otherwise represents any person appearing to be a child engaged in real or simulated sexually explicit conduct and realistic and/or virtual depictions of a child engaged in sexually explicit conduct. Such depictions contribute to normalising the sexualisation of children and fuels the demand of child sexual abuse material. (パラ63)同様の理由から,第1文に「as far as it represents an existing child」を追記することを提案する。
    64. Moreover, for the reasons explained in paragraph 63, any representation of the sexual parts of a child, including realistic images of the sexual organs of a child, for primarily sexual purposes falls under the definition of this offence. Where it may be complicated to establish with certainty if a representation is intended or used for “primarily sexual purposes”, the Committee deems it necessary to consider the context in which it is being used. (パラ64)同様の理由から,第1文に「as far as it represents those of an existing child」を追記することを提案する。
    66. The Committee therefore recommends that States parties, in line with recent developments, avoid the term “child pornography” to the extent possible in legislation and policy, and use other terms such as the “use of children in pornographic performances and materials”,27 “child sexual abuse material” and/or “child sexual exploitation material”. (パラ66)我が国は,本パラグラフにおける委員会の勧告は,既存の法令上の文言を変更するべきという意味ではないと解釈する。
    69. In accordance with article 9.5 OPSC, States parties should also ensure that the production and dissemination of material that advertises the offences described in the OPSC is criminalised. For instance, any insertion on an online or offline medium, such as an ad or a commercial, promoting the sexual exploitation of children in any way, must be criminalised. (パラ69)広告の制限は,表現の自由に対する制約であるから,その範囲は極めて慎重に検討されるべきである。また,特定の広告に関する罰則制定については選択議定書に規定されていないことから,本パラグラフの削除を提案する。
    70. The Committee emphasises the need to pay special attention to the increasing number of children who produce sexual images, e.g. representations of their own sexual parts, either exclusively for themselves or to share them with their boy/girlfriends  or a wider group of peers. A distinction must be made between what the OPSC refers to as “child pornography” and which constitutes a criminal offence, and the production by a child of self-generated sexual content/material representing her/himself. The Committee is concerned that the “self-generated” aspect of such material could increase the risk that the child is considered responsible instead of treated as a victim, and underscores that a child should never be held criminally liable for the production of images of her-/himself. On the other hand, if these images are produced as a result of coercion, blackmailing or other forms of undue pressure against the will of the child, the person who made the child produce such content should be brought to justice.29 For any self-generated sexual material depicting very young children (e.g. pre-pubescent children), the assumption ought to be that it is the result of an abusive or coercive relationship.30 Furthermore, if such images are subsequently distributed, disseminated, imported, exported, offered, or sold as child sexual abuse material, the persons responsible for such acts should be held criminally liable. (パラ70)いかなる若年児童による性的な自画撮り画像も,虐待又は強制的な関係の結果として作成されたものであるとすることは合理的な推定を超えるものであると理解する。
     71. “Sexting” occurs when self-generated content is created, shared and forwarded by the child through mobile phones, applications, and/or the Internet. Sexting has been observed to be a product of youth peer pressure and, to a certain extent, teenagers increasingly consider sexting to be “normal”.31 While this conduct in and of itself is not necessarily illegal or wrongful, there are risks that such content is circulated online or offline beyond or against the will of the child, including to harm children or be used as a basis to extort favours.

31 See Madigan et al., “Prevalence of Multiple Forms of Sexting Behavior Among Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis”, in Jama Pediatrics, 2018.
 
    73. States parties should develop special programmes to which children who have disseminated sexualised material of other children can be diverted, preferably as an alternative to being tried in the formal criminal justice system, and avoiding criminal records and the inclusion in sexual offender’s registers. (パラ73)罪を犯した児童のうち,他の児童の性的画像等をばらまいた児童のみ優遇するのは相当でないから,本パラグラフの削除を提案する。
    78. The Committee recalls that, under article 7 OPSC, States parties are obliged to take measures to seize and confiscate any materials and assets that are used to commit or facilitate the offences covered by the OPSC. They are also obliged to seize and confiscate any proceeds derived from such offences, and take measures to close any premises used to commit such offences. International cooperation must also be guaranteed in this regard, and any request for seizure or confiscation from another State party must be executed. (パラ78)選択議定書第7条は,パラグラフ78記載の各措置を「自国の法の規定に従って」実施することを義務付けており,第1文及び第2文に「subject to the provisions of a State party’s national law」の挿入を提案する。
    86. In accordance with article 4.2 OPSC, a States party should also establish jurisdiction in case offences covered by the OPSC are committed outside its territory (extraterritorial jurisdiction), if the alleged offender is a national of that State or if she/he has her/his habitual residence in its territory, or when the child victim is a national of that State. Under extraterritorial jurisdiction, a State can initiate the investigation and prosecution of an alleged offender if she/he meets the qualifications mentioned above or if the victim is a national of that State. For this action it is not necessary that the alleged offender is present on the territory of the State. While it is the State in which the offence was committed that is primarily responsible for investigation and prosecution of the offender, the State of which the alleged offener is a national or in which he/she has her/his habitual residence has the authority to start an investigation, which may include the issuing of an international warrant for her/his arrest. (パラ86)第1文について,選択議定書第4条2は,域外管轄権を設定するか否かを締約国に委ねているから,「should」を「may」に変更すべきである。また,第4文について,「where appropriate in the domestic legal system of the State」の追記を提案する。
    87. Regarding legislation on extraterritorial jurisdiction, the Committee encourages the States parties to include cases in which a child victim is not a national but has her/his habitual residence in the territory of the State.37 (パラ87)自国民でない被害者が自国に住居を置いている場合の域外管轄権の設定について,選択議定書には規定されていないことから,第1文について,「the Committee encourages the States parties」を「the States parties may」に変更することを提案する。
    88. Furthermore, States parties should abolish the requirement of double criminality, making it possible to exercise extraterritorial jurisdiction for crimes covered by the OPSC committed is another country even if the relevant offence is not criminalised in that country. The principle of double criminality creates a gap in the law which enables impunity, and should not be applied. (パラ88)双罰性は,各国において,捜査共助の要件として一般的に認められているものである上,選択議定書には規定されていない双罰性の放棄を要求するのは相当でないから,本パラグラフの削除を提案する。
    89. Extraterritorial jurisdiction is particularly important for offences related to the sale of children for trade in organs and to the sexual exploitation of children in travel and tourism, where the offender is likely to travel to another country. As the exploitation may not be detected until the offender has returned to her/his country of origin, it is essential that States parties have the capability to prosecute her/him. (パラ89)第2文について,選択議定書第4条2は,域外管轄権を設定するか否かを締約国に委ねているから,本パラグラフは削除すべきである。
    92. To effectively put an end to the still widely existing impunity, the Committee encourages States parties to establish universal jurisdiction for all offences covered by the OPSC, i.e. to enable the investigation and prosecution of such offences regardless of the nationality or habitual residence of the alleged offender and victim. Moreover, the Committee recalls that many of the offences covered by the OPSC can also be committed, or facilitated, through the use of ICTs, and that jurisdiction must cover also such manifestations of the offences. (パラ92)第1文について,普遍的管轄権の設定は各国の法制度に大きく依存するため,「the Committee encourages States parties to」を「the States parties may」に変更し,「as appropriate in their legal system」を追記することを提案する。
    97. The Committee urges States parties to ensure the right to information as well as the right to be heard of child victims in an age-sensitive way, regardless of their legal capacity. Child victims, as well as their parents, guardians or legal representatives, should receive all information needed in a language they can understand and in a gender- and age-appropriate format to help them make an informed decision about filing a criminal complaint against the alleged perpetrator, including information about their rights, their expected role in the criminal process, and the risk and benefits of participation. Once they are part of legal proceedings, they should receive regular updates, be provided with explanations about delay, be consulted on key decisions and be adequately prepared before hearings or trials. (パラ97)最終文について,被害児童の意見は検察官の決定を拘束しないことに鑑み,

 「while respecting public prosecutors’ authority」を追記することを提案する。
    99. The Committee observes that investigations regarding offences covered in the OPSC are still largely child-dependent rather than child-supportive, relying almost entirely on the testimony of the child to convict offenders. The Committee strongly encourages States parties to make a better and full use of crime scene evidence, including digital evidence, the introduction of such evidence in courts and the full use of evidentiary rules, such as child sexual abuse shield laws and child hearsay exceptions. In that vein, the Committee urges States parties to allow the possibility for the prosecution to start an investigation without the victim’s complaint. (パラ99)第2文について,証拠法の内容は各国の法制度や公判の実情を踏まえた上で個別に決定されるべきであるから,「The Committee strongly encourages States parties to make」を「The States parties may consider making」に変更することを提案する。
    101. The Committee recommends States parties to avoid establishing statutes of limitations in respect of those offences.
Should there be such statutes of limitations, the Committee urges States to adjust them to the particular nature of the crime and ensure that they only begin to run when the victim reaches the age of 18.40
(パラ101)第1文について,公訴時効の有無及び期間等については,各国の法制度 の根幹に関わる事項であるから,「The Committee recommends States parties to avoid」を「States parties may consider avoiding」に変更することを提案する。
  (パラ101)第2文について,上記と同様の理由から,「the Committee urges States to adjust」を「States may consider adjusting」に変更することを提案する。
    103. The Committee reminds States parties of their obligation to provide appropriate support and legal counselling to assist child victims of offences covered in the OPSC at all stages of criminal justice proceedings and protect their rights and interests, and to ensure that such proceedings are carried out in the best interest of the child. This includes:
        a. Ensuring that legal and investigative procedures, including methods of questioning, are child- and gender-sensitive, while also enabling officials to adapt such procedures to the special needs and preferences of the individual child, to avoid the secondary victimisation of the child.
To that end, confrontation with the alleged offender and multiple interviews should be avoided. Police officers, judges, procedutors and lawyers should be sensitised to children’s rights and child- friendly justice measures;
        b. Protecting the privacy of child victims in investigation and trial procedures, as well as ensuring legal and practical measures to guarantee appropriate and sufficient protection of child victims from intimidation and retaliation;
        c. Providing free legal aid and assigning (depending on the national legal system) a lawyer or guardian ad litem or another qualified advocate to represent the child. Moreover, providing access to and support of medical personnel, child psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers to every child victim during the criminal justice process and ensuring that these professionals are well-trained and able to build relationships of trust with children;
        d. Making efforts to avoid the need for child victims to be physically present during criminal proceedings, including when they are giving evidence, and to make use, where possible, of appropriate communication technologies to enable child victims to be heard during the trial without being present in the courtroom.42 This also becomes essential in judicial proceedings involving OPSC offences committed against children abroad, to enable testimonies from victims in other countries. If such technological means are unavailable, or if the child’s physical presence is absolutely necessary during a trial, States parties should ensure that the child is not confronted with the alleged perpetrator, e.g. by placing a screen between the two.
        e. Taking special precautionary measures, as needed, when the alleged perpetrator is a parent, a member of the family, another child, or a primary caregiver. Such measures should involve careful consideration of the fact that a child’s disclosure should not worsen her/his situation and that of the other non-offending members of the family, and should not aggravate the trauma experienced by the child. The Committee encourages States parties to consider removing the alleged perpetrator rather than the child victim, since removal can be experienced by the child as a punishment.
(パラ103)第1文について,選択議定書第8条1(d)は,適当な支援サービスの提供義務を規定しているのみであるから,「legal counselling」は削除すべきである。また,適当な支援の内容は,各国の実情に応じて決定されるべきであるから,第2文の 「This includes」を「This may include」に変更することを提案する。
   
    104. The Committee reaffirms that a core principle of child-friendly justice is the speediness of the procedures. Reports of offences covered in the OPSC should not be delayed. Cases concerning the sexual exploitation and sexual abuse of children should be expedited through priority tracking, continuous hearings or other methods, and delays should only be approved after considering the child’s views and best interests. (パラ104)第3文について,児童の性的搾取や性的虐待の事案について,優先的な取扱いをするか否かは,個別事案の内容や他の事件を踏まえて決定されるべきであるところ,「should be expedited」の後に, 「to the extent possible」を追記することを提案する。
    112. To improve the chances of victims to receive compensation from convicted offenders, States parties should enable the identification and attachment of defendants’ assets early in the proceedings and amend money laundering laws to allow victims to be paid from forfeited property. Compensation measures should be enforced in line with international standards, such as article 2.3(c) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which sets forth that States parties must “ensure that the competent authorities shall enforce such remedies when granted”. (パラ112)第1文について,マネ-・ロンダリング法を改正することによる没収財産の利用は,選択議定書には規定がないことから,「and amend money laundering laws to allow victims to be paid from forfeited property」は削除すべきである。
  選択議定書の文脈におけるベストプラクティス
  (パラ29)特に,選択議定書の普及・啓発については,様々なレベルで,多様なステークホルダーと協力することが重要だと考える。この点について,日本においては,次のような取組が行われている。
  警察庁は,ECPAT 及び日本ユニセフと協力して,児童に対する性的搾取が重大な犯罪行為であり,児童の権利の著しい侵害であることを広報啓発するためのポスターを作成し,カラオケボックス,ホテル業界等の関係事業者とともに,これらの店舗等に掲示している。また,警察庁は,国際的なNGO,国連児童の権利委員会委員,各国の法執行機関,インターネット事業者,高等学校生徒が参加する「子供の性被害防止セミナー」を開催し,被害の状況やその対策の取組について周知している。
  性に関する指導は学習指導要領に基づき,児童生徒が性に関して正しく理解し,適切に行動を取れるようにすることを目的に実施されており,体育科,保健体育科,特別活動をはじめ,学校教育活動全体を通じて実施している。
  (パラ31(a))教員に対する研修は,「adequate training」を実現するために,レベルと目的に応じて行うことが重要であると考える。この点について,日本においては,児童生徒の現代的な健康課題に関して,教職員を対象とした多様な研修を実施している。また,性的虐待を含む児童虐待の学校等における早期発見・早期対応のための取組の周知徹底を図っている。
  (パラ31(c))新しい技術に関連する児童の性的搾取等の事案に適切に対処すること は重要であると考える。日本においては,例えば警察庁では,児童の性的搾取に関する 捜査を担当する警察官に対して,児童の特性等に配慮した聴取技法の実習,国連児童の 権利委員会委員,NGO,インターネット事業者等の取組に関する講義を実施している。
  (パラ41)情報技術の発展に伴う新たな課題に関し,広く啓発するためには,多様な側面からアウトリーチ活動を行うことが重要であると考える。日本においては,子どもたちのインターネットの安全な利用に係る普及啓発を目的に,児童・生徒,保護者・教職員等に対する,学校等の現場での「出前講座」を,情報通信分野等の企業・団体と総務省文部科学省が協力して全国で開催している。
  情報モラル教育に関する指導資料等や児童生徒向けの啓発資料を活用しながら,教職員等を対象とした情報モラル教育セミナー等を開催し,情報モラル教育の全国への普及を図っている。
  地方自治体及び都道府県警察では,生徒に,児童の性的搾取の現状及びその対策,並びに関連する情報モラルについての講習への参加を促している。また,議論を通じて,生徒自ら児童の性的搾取の被害を防ぐための方策について理解を深めるための研修を実施している。
  (パラ43,108及び109)プロバイダ等によるインターネット上の違法・有害情報への対策を強化するため,違法・有害情報相談センターを設置し,インターネット上の違法・有害情報に関して,個人やプロバイダ等から個々の事案への対応について相談を受理している。また,違法・有害情報相談センターが受けた相談のうち,一定のもの  (青少年に係る明らかな権利侵害を内容とするもの等)について,協力事業者に対し事案の情報提供を実施している。
  また,警察庁は,児童ポルノブロッキングを行っているインターネット団体及びSNS事業者で構成する「青少年ネット利用環境整備協議会」の活動を支援しているほか, 同協議会に参加していない事業者に対して自主的な被害防止対策の強化に向けた働きかけを実施している。警察庁に委託されたインターネット・ホットラインセンターにおいて,児童ポルノ公然陳列に係る通報件数は,警察への通報が 120 件(平成 30 年上半   期),国内の ISP 等への通報が 76 件(平成 30 年上半期),INHOPE への通報が 1,156 件 (平成 30 年上半期)であった。
  (パラ57)児童の性的搾取等事犯に対しては,手段としてインターネットを用いるか, 用いないかに関わらず,厳正な取締りが重要である。したがって,警察庁では,インタ ーネットを用いた犯罪の取締りも行っており,インターネット上で児童ポルノDVD  を約7千人(約17万枚)に販売していた者を検挙するとともに,これを購入していた 者を全国の警察が協力して順次検挙した。この事件を端緒に,児童を性的に搾取してい た購入者の検挙及び児童の保護を行った。取締りを徹底した結果,潜在的な被害児童の 保護を推進し,親族の児童に対して長期間性的虐待を行っていた者を検挙する等,効果 を上げている。
  (パラ70~73)児童に対して意識啓発を促し,児童の性的搾取の被害防止を図ることも同時に重要である。警察庁は,「自画撮り」の手口を解説した動画及び漫画を作成し,動画については,警察庁のウェブサイトに掲載するとともに,漫画については,児童や保護者に配布し,その被害防止を図っている。
  (パラ102,103)児童の心理的負担の一層の軽減及び児童から聞き取った内容の信用性の確保のため,児童相談所,警察及び検察の連携を強化し,3機関を代表した者1名による協同面接の実施を含め,児童の特性を踏まえた面接・聴取方法等について3 機関で協議・実施する取組を実施している。
  (パラ119)児童の性的搾取等の文脈においては,国際的に協調することが重要であると考える。「オンラインの児童性的搾取撲滅のための WePROTECT 世界連携」に国家公安委員会委員長を主務大臣として積極的に参画しており,世界各国との情報交換を促進するなどして国際的な連携を強化するとともに,平成 30 年2月にストックホルムで開催された「子どものためのアジェンダ 2030:暴力撲滅ソリューションズ・サミット」及びパリで開催された「インターネット・ガバナンス・フォーラムに参加し,WePROTECT 世界連携が担当するワークショップに参加した。